Category Archives: Design History

PITCH PINE WOOD GRAINING WITH DONAL QUIGLEY

Donal Quigley is an Irish painter and decorator who has a passion for wood graining and tells us about his process and techniques for reproducing pitch pine.

ABOUT DONAL

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Donal Quigley is a third generation painter and decorator from County Kilkenny in Ireland.  His apprenticeship was served under the guidance of his father in the eighties and after completing his training, Donal founded his own decorating business in 1992.

Besides the standard painting and decorating work, Donal found himself working in more and more specialized areas such as hand painted signs, gilded hand-carved signs and sandblasted glass signs as well as different wall finishes.

In 2014, Donal studied at the SWR Decart Studio in Dublin under the tutelage of Michel Nadai, the respected French decorative painting artist.

For the past five years, Donal has found himself focusing on wall panelling systems due to their growing popularity in Ireland.

WHAT IS PITCH PINE?

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Indigenous to the United States and the eastern seaboard in particular, the Pitch Pine can grow upwards of 60 feet and has a lifespan of some 200 years.  A hardy species, not even fire or severe trauma can destroy it.

The reason for its centuries old popularity is due to its high resin content.  Indeed, as well as being used for woodwork, the pitch pine is a source for turpentine and tar, otherwise known as pitch!

These days it has a less glamorous purpose, being used for fuel, pulping and making crates.  In the past however, it was used to create anything from railroads and wooden ships to church pews, panels and flooring.

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Pitch pine is not a strong wood and has a rough texture to the grain, however the high resin content leaves it resistant to decay, hence its popularity.  The resinous nature of the wood has its down side however, as it makes it difficult to machine and sand.

Previously pitch pine was sought after due to the vibrant shades and figuring of the grain, however since the boom of railroads and mass planting and forced early foresting of the trees, the quality of the grain began to suffer which is why it is currently used for less elegant tasks.

As a result, the only way to obtain finer specimens is through reclamation, which means in turn that demand has outweighed supply causing a worldwide shortage and rising prices.

This has led to a resurgence in demand for painted reproductions to match already present architectural elements.

DONAL’S PROCESS

Materials and Tools

Colours Used: Raw Sienna, Burnt Sienna, Burnt Umber

Water Based System:

Base colour B.S. 06.C.33.

Johnstone’s pine woodstain.  

Floetrol paint conditioner

Tint with powder colour.  

Work into a paste and thin as required with water.

Tools required

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To start brush on a wash  of the above and obliterate all brush marks to leave a translucent effect.   Allow to dry.

  1. Use a S.1210L. Duck Signwriter’s brush to pencil in figure.

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  1. Begin to form the figure.

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  1. Join the sap and continue up.

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  1. Main figure is now formed.  It is important to soften after each line is drawn to avoid smudging into the next line.

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  1. Now using some burlap begin to do the side grain.

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  1. Glaze the other side.

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  1. Then burlap to form tight side grain effect.

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  1. Finished central panel.

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  1. Next tape off top rail.

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  1. Pencil in figure and soften as you go.

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  1. Finish rail.

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  1. Repeat process on lower rail.

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  1. Last two styles to do.  These can be plain straight grain if you prefer.

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  1. Same process, pencil in grain and burlap side.

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  1. And same on other side.

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  1. Allow to dry.

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  1. Add a thin line of colour to emphasise the joints.

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  1. Overglaze with same colour, adding some Vandyke brown to create      highlights and moirés.  Then badger lightly.

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  1. Panel overglazed.

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  1. Finished panel varnished.

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For more examples of his work and to contact Donal, please click the following Facebook link: Donal Quigley Painting and Decorating

 

 

 

 

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CARVING A NICHE – PATRICK DAMIAENS, ORNAMENTAL WOODCARVER

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ABOUT PATRICK

Paddy

When Belgian woodcarver Patrick Damiaens was a child, his parents took him to the castles and museums of Europe where he encountered and began his love-affair with ornate, hand carved furniture.  The intricate centuries old craftwork inspired young Patrick and he took the first steps towards his goal of being able to imitate the old craftsmen of previous generations and to be able to produce unique and breath-taking wood carvings for bespoke furniture in the Liège style that he adores.

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Patrick studied ornamental carving for three years at the prestigious Don Bosco Institute in Liège.  But first the dedicated student undertook six years of instruction in furniture making at the Sint-Jansberg College in Masseik followed by one year of training in woodcarving.

Now Patrick Damiaens’ Liège style woodcarvings are highly sought after ever since he began working for himself in 1992 and he is the only full-time ornamental wood carver and sculptor in Flanders, Belgium.

A dying craft, Patrick may soon be as unique as the exceptional carvings and sculptures he produces.  It is a privilege therefore to have access to the methods and imagery of the outstanding wood carvings of Patrick Damiaens.

INTRODUCTION TO PATRICK’S WORK

When you commission a piece of furniture from Patrick Damiaens, you are guaranteed three things – remarkable work, a unique item in a definitive style and the knowledge that there is no one producing work quite like him.

Although trained in furniture making himself, Patrick has such a dedication to his craft that he works in conjunction with cabinet makers, a furniture restorer and stair maker, in order that he can give his undivided attention to his exquisite wood carving.

Patrick’s work is in the Liège style, where the finest quality wood panels are painstakingly carved in an elaborate and ornate style dating back to the 17th Century.

A Patrick Damiaens original is identifiable by his signature dragonfly, carved into every piece of work.

DESIGN

The first thing to note in Patrick’s process, is that there is no design to pick from the shelf.  All of Patrick’s designs are tailored to each client from scratch.  As a result each piece takes time and patience and this is reflected in his waiting lists, costs and production times.

Technical drawings are produced with meticulous attention to detail.  Dependent on the level of intricacy, these preliminary designs can take up to a month to produce.

Patrick Damiaens

Patrick Damiaens

An initial pattern is made up which can be based on a Patrick Damiaens Liege-style original or an alternative piece selected by the client.

Once the client has examined the preliminary design, any changes are made as necessary and a final draft is produced on tracing paper, ready to be transferred to the piece of furniture in question.

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CREATION

Although almost every aspect of Patrick’s work is carried out painstakingly by hand, the start off process for any piece involves the use of machinery.

The finalised design is transferred onto the item of furniture and then an electric milling machine is used to eliminate a large proportion of the excess wood from the project.

Once this has been done, Patrick removes any rough edges and remaining surplus wood with his own custom scraper.

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Patrick uses his prized collection of Swiss and German chisels to delicately begin the process of carving intricate and exquisite detail into his subject.

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Once the lengthy process is completed to Patrick’s high standards, the piece is handed back to the cabinetmaker to treat the wood and integrate the carved panel into the final item of furniture.

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RECOGNITION

As well as producing extraordinary furniture, Patrick teaches his craft and writes a blog detailing his work and accomplishments, as well as inspiring future generations of wood carvers.

In honour of his exceptional craftsmanship, the Belgian Federal Government awarded Patrick with The Golden Badge of Honour – “The Elites of Labour”.

Patrick tells us more about the award and what it means.

“Every year hundreds of Belgians from various industries are given the badge of honour for the “Eliten van de Arbeid” (Elites of Labour), to praise them for their professional efforts and merits. This nomination is awarded by royal decree and is published in the Belgian Bulletin of Acts, Orders and Decrees.

On the one hand, a badge of honour is awarded during an official event, and on the other hand, a certificate is traditionally presented by the mayor of your municipality.

For 25 years now, my activities as a woodcarver have been a constant source of pleasure and satisfaction, and I even consider my work to be a personal quest, wherein my goal consists of bringing quality work to my environment, as an ambassador of sorts, who wishes to introduce the next generations to the complexity of my profession

This passion and attitude towards my profession has not gone by unnoticed by a number of technical committees, experts and jury members of the “Elites of Labour”(Eliten van de Arbeid) from the wood industry.”

Golden Medal of the Elites of Labour.

Golden Medal of the Elites of Labour.

Patrick  also restores pieces, creates unique panels and specialises in heraldry.  Here are some more examples of his incredible work.

Custom made family coat of arms

Custom made family coat of arms

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PD 005 ok   architectural woodcarving

More information about Patrick and details of his work can be found here:

https://www.facebook.com/patrick.damiaens.ornamental.woodcarver

http://www.patrickdamiaens.be/eng/index.html

OAK WOODGRAINING WITH TROMPE L’OEIL MOLDINGS

OAK WOOD GRAINING WITH JEREMY TAYLOR

Wood has been imitated with paint and pigments for at least 3000 years, indeed the grainers of ancient Egypt were among the higher classes of artisans. Wood is imitated for several reasons, whether it is to make a cheaper wood look like an expensive wood, to paint a substance that is not wood to resemble wood or to match new work to existing wood. Oak is very often imitated, in particular quarter sawn oak as it is expensive and has a very distinctive grain pattern.

Jeremy Taylor

Jeremy Taylor

About Jeremy Taylor

Jeremy started a Painting and Decorating apprenticeship in 1983 under the tutelage of Robert Black who was a highly regarded local decorator and a part time enthusiastic artist.  After 4 years he then moved on to a local decorating firm until 1991 at which point he moved to the South West of England and worked for a decorating firm.  Whilst living in Devon, he first learned of the late Bill Hollgate from Clithero who ran graining and marbling courses.  Jeremy attended his first course in 1991, going on to attend four more classes, the last one being in 1999.  Bill was totally inspiring, a true master of the craft of graining and marbling and he was a proud member of the salon.  Jeremy was hooked.

3 years after moving to England Jeremy returned to his native Scotland to start up his own business.  In 2002 he went back to college to pursue another passion of his which is Traditional Signwriting.  He attended Edinburgh’s Telford College one day a week for 2 years and gained qualifications in Signwork at HNC level.  Jeremy‘s diversity and extreme attention to detail have allowed him over the years to build up a wonderful client base.  He also carries out work on a contract basis for Historic Scotland since 2002 which has meant working at many of their castles and monuments in the Grampian Region.

In the summer of 2012 Jeremy travelled to Sweden Palm Fine Arts to attend a one week Wood Graining and Trompe L’oeil course ran by Mats Carlson.  Jeremy was hugely impressed by Mats’ talent at decorative painting thinking him to be one of the very finest in his field.  It was an amazing week and it allowed him to learn new skills to develop and grow as a decorative painter.

More recently Jeremy has trained with Michel Nadia, Gert- Jan Nijsse and Patrick Laheyne, who are all world class decorative painters!

Real Quarter Sawn Oak

A Brief note on Quarter Sawn Oak

Labelled either “Quarter Sawn Oak”, or simply “Quartered Oak” this wood is oak lumber that is riven or sawn along a radius of the annual rings or at an angle less than 45 degrees so that the radius is edge-grained. The slower growing hardwoods may require 75 years to yield good saw timber and 100 or more years to produce quartered lumber or high grade. What is known as quarter-sawn lumber is the best for pattern-work and all wood-work, because it is not so likely to warp as is the regular, or bastard-sawn. Quarter-sawn lumber is wood that is sawn approximately parallel with the medullary ray. The trunk of a tree is made up of concentric cylindrical layers, bound together with radial fibres, which are known as medullary rays. It is the exposure of these rays that gives to quartered oak the beauty that is so much prized.

Quartering is a very wasteful way of sawing lumber, and involves an extra cost, however for pattern work that must be made thin, it pays to use quarter-sawn lumber, even if it does cost more. The grades in quartered oak are “Clear”, “Sap Clear”, and “Select”. In contrast, the grades in plain-sawn oak are “Clear”, “Select”, and “No. 1”. The shrinkage or swelling in the width of a flat-grained board is nearly twice that of a quartered or edge-grained board of the same dimensions. As a rule, it takes quartered oak two years longer to dry in the shade than it takes plain oak, walnut, chestnut, and the like. Quartered oak veneer is usually obtained by sawing, not slicing, for the latter procedure destroys the effectiveness of the ray fleck. Quartered wood dries more slowly than plain-sawn.

 

Sawn Oak Diagram 1

Sawn Oak Diagram 1

Sawn Oak Diagram 2

Sawn Oak Diagram 2

Jeremy’s Process

Colours used for this panel are: Raw Sienna, Raw Umber, Black, White and Proceed Low Viscosity Glaze.

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Below are the tools required to complete the panel.

Tools

Tools

Mix raw sienna, raw umber and black with low viscosity glaze.  Brush on the panel and use a hog hair brush to create the grain, pulling from top of panel, sometimes in a wavy motion to the bottom.

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With a fine tooth steel comb, start at the bottom of the panel and crosshatch the grain at a 45 degree angle – this produces the pore marks in the oak.

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To wipe out the silver grain, I use an old plastic credit card shaped to resemble your thumb nail.  A lint free cloth is wrapped over the graining horn as it is known.

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Starting at the top, begin to wipe out the silver grain, it is very important to keep moving the cloth so you keep the figuring nice and crisp.  The bigger markings, known as dapples, are generally found at the centre of the panel with fine supporting grain at the sides, which just fades away.

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Progress of the silver grain.

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Using a folded cloth, create half tones under the big dapples – these often take on the same shape.

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Using the graining horn with the cloth, start to wipe out the annual rings, known as heart grain.

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Joining of the two saps.

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More heart grain progress.

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The heart grain is completed using steel or rubber combs to carefully finish the sides.

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Once the initial figuring is completed and dry, mix up the same colours and brush over the panel, creating mottles with the mottler brush  and wiping out highlights around knots – the knots were created with a small sable brush.

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When overglazing the silver grain a flogging brush can be used by dragging down the panel to create streaks over the silver grain and can then be broken up using the crosshatch method with a one inch steel comb.

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Creating the Trompe L’oeil moulding

Mitre the corners using low tack tape for a sharp finish.

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Complete the next stage of the moulding in the same manner and let dry.

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Using a striping brush and a mahl stick, start creating the profiles of the moulding by adding black to the base glaze.

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Progression of profiles.

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More progress.

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The profiles are blended by stippling them, softening with a badger brush.

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Progression of the mouldings; note the chosen light source is from the top left.

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Highlights are added with the base glaze mixed with white.

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The centre raised panel and the round ornaments are marked out with a stabilo water based crayon.

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Close up of marked out Trompe.

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When shading the panel and ornaments remember all the time that the light source is from the top left.  For highlights add white to the base glaze and for shadows add black.

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Once the panel is dry, overglaze with burnt umber for depth of colour and soften with a badger brush.

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Finished Panel.

Finished panel

Finished panel

Jeremy Taylor and some examples of his completed work, including his Pierre Finkelstein Oak Contest winning piece.

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Winning entry for the Pierre Finkelstein Oak Contest.

Winning entry for the Pierre Finkelstein Oak Contest.

FANLIGHTS – A BRIEF HISTORY AND RESTORATION OF A FANLIGHT AT GRADE 1 LISTED GATEHOUSE, BUCKINGHAMSHIRE

Fanlight commission for Grade I listed Gatehouse, Buckinghamshire.

David R Agnew, respected Craftsman Decorator from Newport Pagnell in the UK is back to tell us about the history of the fanlight and the work involved when he was commissioned to restore one in a Listed Gatehouse.

Introduction by Client/Architect

Tyringham Gateway was built in 1794 to the design of the eminent architect Sir John Soane and despite its small size it is acclaimed worldwide as a monument of European importance.  Indeed, the late poet and renowned architectural historian Sir John Betjeman considered the Gateway and its close neighbour Tyringham Bridge as “the most perfect small buildings I know in England” Unsurprisingly they are both Grade I listed buildings.

By the mid/late 19th century – less than 100 years after its completion – the Gateway stood uninhabited and unloved with its sash windows and entrance doorways blocked up with stonework.  Fortunately in 1909 the building underwent general repairs and improvements when the original late Georgian entrance doors and fanlights were removed and replaced with new.  Sadly no photographs of the originals have been discovered however it can be safely assumed that the semicircular fanlights would have had very narrow astragals or glazing-bars, which were fashionable in the late Georgian and Regency eras.  Regrettably the Edwardian replacements were crude and heavy-handed, totally alien to Soane’s refined joinery detailing.

Precedent studies of other Soane buildings show that he frequently created metal (rather than wood) fanlights.  These involved the workshop fabrication of compound glazing-bars or astragals, in which narrow moulded ribs of malleable cast iron or lead were crimped onto thin webs of flat iron or brass, resulting in a very fine and delicate appearance.  One manufacturer of these astragals in the late 18th century was the Eldorado Company in London.

Knowing that David Agnew was an experienced craftsman accomplished at creating present-day leaded lights, I asked him whether he would consider making three fanlights based upon the Eldorado pattern for me, assuming that (as the Eldorado Company was no longer in existence) we could source the essential malleable iron or lead ribs.  Soane frequently used pale yellow or amber stained glass in his fanlights and rooflights and a joint decision was taken to do the same in order to increase “authenticity”. 

Barry Clayton,

Retired conservation Architect.

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Fanlight commission for Grade I listed Gatehouse, Buckinghamshire.

Fanlights are not particularly unusual, even leaded glass panels – each displays a certain uniqueness.  The thing most unusual about these fanlights is the system employed.  For craftspeople working on old buildings, this system was only employed for a generation and was left to obscurity some two hundred years ago!  I feel it is important that fellow craftspeople will be able to identify surviving fanlights and afford the recognition and respect they deserve through passing on this knowledge.

The following project is by no means the protocol in the manufacture of these special windows, I merely wanted to document the way I went about making these ones, to achieve the desired results and would hope it is helpful to anyone else taking on something similar.

Further reading & information can be found within this excellent book – Fanlights – an architectural History by Alexander Stuart Grey & John Sambrook. ISBN 07136430779

A GENERAL AND POTTED HISTORY ABOUT THE FANLIGHT

Fanlights have nearly always been a feature above front doors, never more so, during the Georgian and Victorian period. They were designed particularly to allow natural light into narrow entrances.

The early examples, had very thick glazing bars, but during the late mid and late Georgian periods 1760 – 1810, there was almost a competition between designers and architects, on who could come up with the most elaborate designs & with the thinnest glazing bars.

Timber, having limitations as to the elaborate patterns that could be achieved within a curved aperture for example, persuaded innovation to dictate manufacture, from a malleable material, a thin profile from lead. These are sometimes known as ‘Eldorado’ glazing bars.

The profile is an ‘Astragal’ and is just 10mm at it’s widest point, the webs, which are inserted into the back are brass in a lot of cases, as this is malleable and can follow intricate shapes. It is not uncommon to find steel ones, but this is mainly confined to straight bars or pre-formed shapes.

Something else worthy of note, is on some really elaborate and decorative fanlights, you can see garlands of wreaths and ‘Adam’ stile urns etc. one famous fanlight, would be 10 Downing Street, London. If you look carefully, you can see in the middle, some curved leaves, these are made of cast lead.

Anyway, a potted & brief history.

Here is quite an elaborate example, featuring garlands and floral motifs. Circa 1780. Before and after restoration.

Here is quite an elaborate example, featuring garlands and floral motifs. Circa 1780. Before and after restoration.

Another example in for repair and again showing floral motifs

Another example in for repair and again showing floral motifs

I was commissioned to produce three fanlight windows for a grade one listed Gatehouse, Buckinghamshire, England. Built in 1794 and designed by Sir John Soane. One of the fanlights commissioned is an internal feature, dividing a bedroom and ensuite above a mahogany door. The glass consists of two different shades of amber, with blue slips around the perimeter – which is a typical Soane feature. The other two fanlights are above external entrance doors where I had to make alterations to the frame, more on that later.

Having being briefed & then commissioned with this project, I then had to source the material, as lead glazing bars are not commonly available. Stumped on how to find the obscure materials needed, I thought I would explore the idea of making my own and to see if I could. I first of all would need a mould, I used my router and suitable profile bits to rout grooves in a peace of maple wood – I had read somewhere that maple is quite resilient to heat, which would be ideal for a mould.

Router bits  and the resulting astragal cast lead profile in maple wood mould.

Router bits and the resulting astragal cast lead profile in
maple wood mould.

Router bits and  the resulting astragal cast lead profile in maple wood mould.  The results of the casting were reasonably okay. However, I had a problem with trying to work out how I could get a groove in the back for the brass webs. Whilst I was casting and having a dabble with lead, I thought I would try my hand at some of the ornaments which are found on fanlights. I did not have any elaborate moulds made from maple, so I used air drying clay to make my moulds because it is unaffected by the molten material. I simply found various applique ornaments kicking around the workshop, some were wood and some were plaster, I just pressed them into the clay and allowed the clay to dry over several days. It is important that the clay is not damp because the lead can explode. I used a propane gas torch, normally used for burning paint off, wedged between bricks and rested the iron ladle on top to heat and cut small pieces of lead until I filled the ladle and melted enough to fill the moulds. I have in the past, also used fine sand to cast ornament.

Should a new ornament be needed to repair a missing or damaged one on a fanlight in situ, then my method would be to take a latex mould from the existing pattern. I would then fill the latex and make a plaster proto type, then use this either press in sand or a clay mould prior to casting in lead.

However, I believe there are other moulding materials, which could be explored, such as resin. But for me, lead would be the honest route in order to restore.

Practice cast lead and clay moulds together with the iron ladle for melting the lead.

Practice cast lead and clay moulds together with the iron
ladle for melting the lead.

Anyway, apart from all the experimenting, amusing as it was, Indeed to get on with the project in hand  to execute it as professionally as possible. So………….we move on to the task.

I had the beads extruded by special order and to my specifications by a company specializing in the manufacture of lead came for the ‘stained glass’ industry – to which I also dabble.

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Photo 1

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The lead arrived in 1000mm lengths all coiled up. The brass is 0.9mm thick and 18mm width, which I managed to source from a trade stall dealing with scrap metal at a country show and steam rally. I think it might have been used for the decorative banding used to go round the boilers on the steam engines!!

Photo 2 shows the brass inserted into the groove, in the back of the lead bar. The lead itself, shown coiled up in photo 1, is 10mm in width. However, once it is uncoiled from manufacture, I hold one end in a vice and then pull the lead to straighten it. This also stiffens and as a consequence reduces its width to 8mm.

We now move on to making the window to fit its intended aperture. This starts with a full size working drawing, which has been checked for fitment.  The lead, after having been uncoiled and stiffened, is manipulated and placed over the lines of the drawing. It is held temporarily with horseshoe nails – because these have a flat side – until the whole lead skeleton of the window bars are laid out.

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To fix the lead joints, I cleaned the joints with a wire brush and rubbed a tallow candle over the joints as a flux prior to soldering.  Once this procedure is complete, the whole window is turned over so that the brass strips can be inserted into the groove to form the webs for the rebate. I use plumbers acid flux at each joint prior to soldering with lead/tin solder. This really does stiffen the whole window panel considerably. All the joints are then cleaned up; a certain amount of delicate cutting back is needed in order to maintain the lead profile – Photo 7. The glazing bars and the brass webs are then thoroughly degreased prior to the application of cellulose primer.

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Photo 7

We now move on to prepare for the glazing of our new window. The glass needs to be cut accurately as there is little margin for error, with the rebates being so very narrow, plus, cutting concave sections can have its risks too, as this has to be done by hand and not against a straight edge.

Turning over the window and working from the back, I lay the glass over for each section. I am able to see through the glass and proceed to run the cutter just inside the web line, making a ‘score’. A consistent score is required for the glass to then be taken aside, where pressure is placed on the score to which it will break – hopefully! I cut all the glass for each individual section, and then number each piece.

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Photo 8

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We are now able to proceed with fitting the already cut glass. Using ordinary linseed oil putty, the rebates are run with a bead to bed the glass in. photo 8 & 9.

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Photo 10

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Having bed all the glass in each aperture, we proceed with running a bead to create a face putty. This wedge shaped fillet will hold the glass in position. The rebate each side of the brass web is less than 3.5mm. When facing the putty it is extremely important that the putty line next to the glass, is kept back from the rebate by about 1mm, or it will be seen when viewed from the front, which is unsightly and undesirable.

The whole panel has been designed to fit in a ply sub frame or a kind of sash, which will fit snugly into the rebate of the main doorframe. Photo 12 may demonstrate this, by showing the outer perimeter from the inside, where it has been fitted to the sub frame by the use of escutcheon nails through the outer brass webbing and into the sub frame.

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Photo 12

After installation, I applied mid brown eggshell finish to both sides, followed by a translucent dark brown eggshell to simulate the colour of the door and to achieve a ‘woody’ effect.

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The finished window now installed as an internal feature to divide two rooms.  We now move on to the other two fanlights, which will be above two external doors. Built in exactly the same way as the internal fanlight previously. The only difference is that the main door frame had to have subtle alterations to accommodate the fanlight panel.

Previously, there was an existing fanlight, which had four divisions and was installed during the Edwardian period.   Inappropriately thick glazing bars and completely out of kilter with the refined design details of the building. Unfortunately, I have no pictures of this, but I altered the head of the frame above the door to incorporate a nameplate for each Gatehouse Lodge. A design detail by way of applied reeded moulding, which is contemporary for the building as there is evidence on other buildings designed by the same architect. Here is a clearer picture of the sub frame, mentioned earlier. Photo 15

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Photos 16 & 17 show the fanlights in their external position, facing all the weather can throw at them.  They have been protected with several coats of Sikkens Cetol BL, a water-based hybrid satin finish  BS 12, B29.  The signs are of course, gold leaf.

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Photo 18

A shot from inside looking out.  Amber glass, this time in monochrome with no varying shades or blue perimeter slips.

Here is the overall picture, complete with door and masonry to frame the effect.

Here is the overall picture, complete
with door and masonry
to frame the effect.

 

VERT DE MER FAUX MARBLE – A TUTORIAL BY LAURENT HISSIER

 

Laurent Hissier

Laurent Hissier

Laurent Hissier was born into a musical family in 1965, in Périgueux in the Dordogne in France.  He began working at the Palace of Versailles in 1990 as a night security man. In the ten years that followed, he developed a deep fascination with the painted and gilded panels and furnishings that surrounded him on his nightly rounds.

In his spare time, between playing in various blues bands, Laurent began to practice painting small panels, teaching himself and figuring out the techniques and finishes that appealed to him so much.

On a visit to the gilding and restoration workshop in the palace to seek advice on a panel he was working on, Laurent met Daniel Sievert, the head of the restoration department, who freely shared his knowledge. During one of Laurent’s many visits, Mr. Sievert mentioned that he could do with an extra pair of hands and after applying for a transfer from the security department, Laurent began work as a gilder and painter in 2003. His duties included making pedestals and frames for works of art in the palace and restoring the existing furnishings, all under the watchful eye and tuition of Daniel Sievert, who trained him in the traditional gilding technique used throughout the palace.

In 2004, Laurent met Pierre Lefumat, who trained him in the techniques of marbling, faux stone and patina. Laurent published a book along with Daniel Sievert in 2011, ‘Gilding at Versailles’ which is an invaluable resource for anyone with an interest in the subject. When Daniel Sievert retired, Laurent was promoted to the position of head of gilding restoration.

After reading Laurent’s inspirational story on Pierre Finkelstein’s website, I contacted him online some years ago and a firm friendship developed. He is always very generous with his knowledge and here he takes us through his method for creating Vert de Mer, or sea green marble.

Palette

Palette

 Sea Green Imitation – by Laurent Hissier

I use the technique of Acrylic and Oil on a black background.  The materials required are as follows:

Acrylics:

Palette: Chrome Oxide Green, Titanium white

Other materials:

Natural Sponge, Spalter medium, small, Twin head brush http://www.boesner.fr/pinceaux-art-du-faux/7364-leonard-chiqueteur-2-meches-petit-gris-3660599030276.html, Small pointed brushes, Badger

Oils:

Palette:  Green English 1, Ivory Black, Titanium white, Red Ochre, Prussian Blue, Blue overseas, Natural Siena, Bitumen

Other materials:

Badger, Spalter, Three strands or chiqueteur, sable brushes flat, sharp Brushes: medium and fine

Toothbrush, Glaze: 2/3 turpentine – 1/3 linseed oil, a few drops of dryers

DAY 1

ACRYLIC WORK

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 Degrease the surface with whiting and a damp sponge

  • Rinse and dry the surface
  • Make a mixture of white and green and begin to glaze the surface with the sponge very lightly and soften with the badger
  • With twin header start fundamental work with a slightly white glaze, and layout the marble.
  • This work is long, varied; use sponge to break these veins and smooth.
  • Wash the twin header before creating different shades.
  • Gradually add white to the colour and continue.
  • Make effects with small Spalters, sponge, soften
  • Using fine brushes and always with the glaze begin to realize the veins of varying size.
  • Create thicker veins in places
  • Marble is built at this stage, think about making very light veins that will sometimes be chopped, cut, broken, etc.
  • Vary how the brush is held.

OIL WORK:

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  • Mix bitumen with the oil glaze and achieve effects, soften
  • Allow to dry

DAY 2

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  • Glaze the surface, spread well with a spalter
  • Take white, green and repeat the same work as acrylic, sometimes on painted veins, sometimes not, using flat brush or pointed.
  • Build colour always very gradually
  • The direction of the grain may have a different meaning or overlapping with the veins made with acrylic.
  • With a very dilute Prussian blue create subtle stones.
  • Take a sable brush and work with the tip, alternating very thin veins and thicker.
  • With another flat brush create black pebbles sparingly.
  • Do the same thing but with pure white.
  • Spatter with a toothbrush with a mixture of turpentine and pure white or slightly tinted, but also with pure black.
  • Using the twin header, making a discreet cobblestone effect and only in places with red ocher
  • Let dry and varnish

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Some examples of sea green marble painted by Laurent Hissier

pic7 pic8pic10  pic9

Laurent Hissier is currently working as a freelance gilder and decorative painter at the Articuci workshop in the south of France, and teaches courses in order to pass on his craft.

More details of Laurent’s work can be found here: Atelier Articuci

Mahogany – Top 10 Graining Tips!

Cait Whitson is a self confessed paintgeek who has run her own company since the age of 20 and now based in Perth, Scotland happily working at producing and teaching great decorative paint finishes all over the country (and the world if given half a chance).  Here she gives her insights into the history and techniques of Mahogany wood graining.

I have always loved Mahogany and it is my favourite wood to imitate. The variety of tones and patterns are somewhat incredible. These enormous trees sometimes reaching 150 feet in height and 10-12 feet in diameter have been favoured by furniture makers and construction woodworkers since its introduction to Europe and North America and although good quality mahogany becomes rarer each year, the prized beautiful veneer and solid wood is still highly sought after.

While most of us think of mahogany being used in fine furniture, here you can see it used in construction in a house built on Petra Island to one of Frank Lloyd Wright’s original designs:

 

Mahogany used extensively in this house that was built using original drawings by Frank Lloyd Wright (credit http://www.privateislandsonline.com)

 

Mahogany has been a favourite of woodworkers and cabinet makers partly because of the freedom from waste. It is possible to supply figured timber from the mahogany tree in substantial quantities and at only a nominally more expensive rate than the plain timber; superiority in lengths and widths with fewer defects than other timbers mean that mahogany offers large clear cuttings that are free from sap and these are comparatively easy to finish to a smooth surface make it a much loved quality material. Alongside that Mahogany has a rare and permanent beauty and stability.
History

The Golden Age of Mahogany was during the 18th Century and the first quarter of the 19th Century as master craftsmen Chippendale, Hepplewhite, Sheraton and the brothers Adam shaped the furniture that most of us admire today and still live with.

Typical Georgian mahogany piece (credit http://www.wilkinsonantiques.co.uk)

None of us would find the Georgian room unfashionable today (credit http://theredlist.com)

Prior to that European furniture was heavier as a rule and made principally from native wood. Until about 1725 the cost of importing foreign lumber for furniture was a prohibitive luxury. Before that of course came the discovery of the timber and its introduction. The first recorded use of the timber outside of the forests in which it grew was near to its native home during the 16th Century and it was one of the New World treasures brought back to Europe and into North America by early explorers, pirates and buccaneers. When Cortez saw ships being made from mahogany in Santo Dominico he immediately commissioned his own and likewise Sir Walter Raleigh adopted it for his ships. There is a rather romantic tale of Raleigh returning to England with the first examples of the timber and because Queen Elizabeth admired it so much he, in his customary fashion, immediately commissioned the ships carpenters to fashion a table in the timber for her. If this is true it is the first example of the timber being used in England
 

 

 

Crotch Mahogany graining by Cait Whitson credit – Cait Whitson

Graining for me is always about looking at the real thing. Marble you can often have a bit of artists licence with but with woods you need to capture the character of the timber well and most often I find I am matching to something existing, so you need to get practice at some of the characteristics of the wood. Mahogany has a fleck in the background, usually quite regular,

Flat Cut Mahogany Credit – The Hobbit House Inc

and the heart wood of the flat cut tends to be regular and even unlike say walnut which has a much more wayward nature.

Flat Cut Heartwood Credit – The Hobbit House Inc

A great place to check out images of any timber is Hobbit House. (http://hobbithouseinc.com/personal/woodpics/)  There you will see all the different cuts displayed in untreated form. The common solid wood cuts used in construction are mainly plain flat cut with a narrow heart or wide heart and plain stripe cut quartered. Veneers used for decorative furniture and panels will be broken stripe, wide broken stripe, swirl and crotch cut as well as the flat cut heart wood. Occasionally you might see some plum pudding or blister figure. For instruments like violins and guitars the fiddle back and mottle and fiddle back are used. The Mahogany Association plates from their book “The Mahogany Book” are a great reference to the different types of figure http://thompsonmahogany.com/the-mahogany-book-plates/ It is worth getting this book as a handy reference.

One of the plates from the Mahogany Book Credit – (http://thompsonmahogany.com)

Mahogany comes from all over the tropical world and so colours and variations are many, likewise the methods of imitating mahogany in paint are numerous. I remember being told when I first started in the decorative painting world that the base coat colour for mahogany was British Standard 04D44 as if this was an immutable fact. This is a very red colour and I don’t believe I have used that colour again in all my days of imitating the timber. There is no “definitive” for any timber, it is all about what you are trying to imitate.

TIP #1 Finding the right tone for the base coat colour is dependent on how much work you are going to do – i.e. how many layers the budget can afford. If you are only doing one layer then choose a colour just slightly lighter than the finish you are matching, 2 layers look for the paler colours in the timber and choose one of those…3 layers go for the palest colour you can see or a little paler. I tend to start with golden brown and nutty peach colours and I tend to add red into the glaze rather than start with a red base if I want a redder. I use acrylic eggshell these days as a ground for my graining as a rule but oil based is fine, just remember to degrease with Fullers Earth or similar

TIP #2 My system of choice for mahogany has always been a beer or gouache glaze combined with an oil based glaze. The beer glaze is made with thinned “ale” and pigment; alternatively gouache or UK “poster colour” can be used. The same term in USA is not a suitable medium. You could also use a quick drying acrylic medium – even a thinned varnish to work the quicker layers in. These latter mediums can be tinted with powders, acrylic artists paints and Universal Stainers. The oil glaze that I make is a mix of 1 part raw linseed oil; 3 parts white (mineral) spirits; plus about 10% terebine driers (or Japan driers in USA) Your mixes will behave differently depending on your environment – I might make a very different mix should I live and work in Arizona, than the one I make in sunny Scotland. So play with what works for you and your area. There are many variations of these 2 recipes, it is worth hunting around to find what works for you best.
TIP#3 The graining colour added to the oil is usually made from Vandyke Brown, Black, Burnt Sienna and Burnt Umber; other colours that may be considered are Raw Umber, Venetian Red, and Crimson and I use a high quality artists oil colour – my preferred brand is Mussini Schminke.

TIP#4 Tools are as below – this is a selection of tools that would enable you to achieve most woods. The main ones you use in mahogany are – flogger, mottle, overgrainer, writer, softener (most usually a badger but a hogs hair I use too), along with some rubbing in brushes and a varnish brush (I prefer a glider for this to finish.

Tools for Graining and Marbling

Tools for Graining and Marbling

The layers of water and oil based material work and are efficient because the oil doesn’t work up the water based and vice versa, whereas working extensively oil over oil, may soften the layer below and results in an extended dry time making the project less commercial. The way you combine the layers is really down to the look desired and the budget. I will show you a few methods I have done in the past.

TIP #5 First of all flogging – flogging is what creates the open pore flecks that are characteristic of this type of wood. You use a flogging brush. Paint on the medium of your choice and then hold the flogger loosely as shown below. Do not grip it

Holding a flogging brush – this is a nifty little one useful for door edges and narrow areas

Rock the brush and firmly flap the bristle onto the surface to make the bristles imprint into the medium. Sometimes you need to let a medium ‘set up’ which means dry a little till it is less wet, and that way the medium will hold the imprint. Work in the direction that the bristle is pointing. So if you have the brush in the position that it is in the photograph you work bottom to top…which doesn’t feel intuitive I find for the beginner.

Here is a flogged surface in oil on hand rails and the finished product. The oil allows me to blend 2 colours together more easily and as seen on the LSs rail and the next two images show the water based layer over the top, finished and varnished. I degreased the oil surface with Fullers Earth to allow the oil layer to accept the gouache/beer layer and then I just varnished with a solvent borne gloss varnish

Oil flogged surface with gouache/beer overgraining

Oil flogged surface with gouache/beer overgraining

TIP#6 My next trick is to use flecks of paint rather than flogging – spatter the surface with a water based medium (water based for speed of drying – you could use anything that will not be reactivated by your next layer).

Flecks being softened

TIP #7 Soften with the badger in the direction of the grain. I find that holding the brush perpendicular to the surface allows huge control of any medium…try it. Keep the handle perpendicular to your surface and allow the bristles to do the work, you can be quite rough but if you maintain that perpendicular status of the handle, you will be able to manipulate the work with extreme skill.

TIP #8 Graining over the top – to create the figure. Whichever medium you use to create the heartwood the tool used is usually a mottler to create the fine heartwood lines. I find that holding the tool so the bristles lie at an angle that on a clock would be 1 o’clock and 7 o’clock and to keep it there from the start of the movement to the end. Move from the heart out through the figure and then soften from the heart out. This gives you  the foundation for the cathedral grain and you can tweak it and pick out individual lines to empahisise, soften some more than others.

Creating the figure graining

Creating the figure graining

Figuring after initial softening

Examples of figuring in real mahogany

Examples of figuring in real mahogany

TIP #9 When it comes to having one piece of wood cross another, try this little trick. Take some P80 grit sandpaper and lay it across the completed work, the grit side down. Then use this as a mask. You will get clean and realistic timber joints without leaving one to dry and doing the next at another time

Use P80 sandpaper as a mask

TIP #10 Keep it simple, not every piece of architectural mahogany has to have a heavy and complex figure to it. This tends to be the work on furniture or key pieces like doors, don’t overcomplicate the job, you need to make some money!!!

Example of Graining by Cait Whitson

Example of Graining by Cait Whitson

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Example of Graining by Cait Whitson

But when you get the opportunity to go for it……..

Book-matched grained panel in a department store by Cait Whitson

Book-matched grained panel in a department store by Cait Whitson

Happy Painting!!!
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Clock Dial Restoration – St Firmin’s Church, North Crawley

David R Agnew is a respected Craftsman Decorator from Newport Pagnell in the UK and in this article he gives a step by step account of the methods and techniques involved in the complicated and delicate restoration process of the Clock Dial at St. Firmin’s Church in North Crawley.

Clock1

Clock Dial prior to restoration

 

A diary slice of the Clock Dial restoration.
David R Agnew LCGI
Craftsman Decorator
Newport Pagnell

Just started this today, should have been six weeks ago, but have been waiting for
the faculty from the diocese to arrive.

So…arrived this morning to instruct the scaffolders’ of my requirements. So thought,
while I was waiting for them to erect it, I would start having a poke around, taking
pictures & documenting the job.
Clock 2
Scaffold being erected

The job consists of three items, the clock dial, the leaded window underneath the
dial & the gilding of the weathercock -which has already been completed.

Clock 3

So, poking around I went into the church & found the door leading to the tower, as
for me, this would be the route to access the scaffold. Up a winding stone staircase
which is only 2′ width & terminating at the clock room, where there is a door in the
far corner which takes you to the back of the dial.
Clock 4

clock5
The movement is ‘J Bennett of 65 Cheapside London’ I believe this was installed in
the Victorian era.

6

First thing I notice is that where I need to work, it is completely filthy, covered in cobwebs and
years of dust etc, this was going to be my first job -clean up. I can’t stand working in a mess
before the work even starts! I do this, because I want to get absorbed in my environment,
working in old buildings takes on a different pace for me & it helps you to take in & notice
tiny details when not rushed or jumping straight in.
However, I knew that the first day would be about thinking the job through and formulating the
work plan in my head -time spent thinking is never wasted.
7
I decided to investigate the window, and discovered that I could take this out from the inside,
fortunately, it is in it’s own wooden frame which is in pretty good condition, so will refurbish
the frame. The leaded window itself has not faired well, and I have decided that I will just make
a new one, the lead cames are very thin and with so much glass missing, it isn’t really
economical to repair. The window is approximately 120 years old and I would guess it was
installed the same time as the original clock movement and dial etc. The iron tie bars, which
are there to help support the window, are unusual to me, they are thin at one end. This is
because the thin end has been driven onto the frame and then secured with a clout nail in the
flange at the other side. All the ones I have seen in the past have just been the same
thickness and built into the frame, or a fixing flange at each end -so, just a little detail I picked
up on. The whole window, will be taken back to the workshop, where I will take a rubbing and
make a new one based on that.

8
After doing the rubbing I take the old panel apart, soak all the reusable glass in ‘Krud Kutter’
–a sugar soap type cleaner. I have been fortunate in the past, as I have always saved old
glass from when I have had to do repairs on box windows and the like, so I have plenty of
spare bits to make this window complete with all old crown or muff glass.
9
Second morning, I am still missing the tarps to keep the weather out, so the
scaffolders’ have to come back for that. Anyway, thought I would have a close look
at the dial. Firstly, I wanted to establish what material it was,and yes, it did turn out
to be copper. The previous paint job was very rough, not to our usual painting
standards. Although the gilding seems fairly bright & in reasonable condition, the last
job is not entirely honest, as you can make out, that who ever did it, didn’t paint the
whole dial with a system, then sign write and gild in the proper manner, because you
can see where the numerals have been gone round and where it is grey in between over
all, is not a very tidy job. When it is viewed whilst 40 feet in the air and from a
distance, it isn’t noticeable.

10
Nevertheless, I proceeded to take measurements of the numerals and make notes. I
then covered the whole dial with drafting film and took accurate tracings of the existing
layout, when I get the latter back to the workshop, I will lay it out on the drawing
board to make the final adjustments to accuracy and then prick it to convert the draft
into the working drawing for later transfer.
With all the note taking done, I then started to prepare the copper dial. I abraded
the existing coating with 60 grit, using mechanical sanding with extraction, because
of the dangers with possible lead paint being present. The whole Is in very sound
condition, so washed down, after sanding with ‘Krud Kutter’ and then applied a first
coat of Rustoleum Alkythane, a satin finish industrial coating which weathers by
erosion. Colour RAL 5009

11

Now I turn my attention to the dial back boarding. Most of the moulding has
decayed, so I need to sort some new out. The existing mould consists of three parts,
I didn’t think it was particularly special, but the fact that it is made up from three
different components lends itself to fail on the moisture ingress front. After removing
the lower five sections around the base board, It was quickly becoming apparent,
that the base boarding itself had decayed in several places. This lead me to ask
questions about the integrity of it fixings. Should I just patch up, with new hardwood
mouldings and just screw the copper dial back on? No was the answer. The effort for
the scaffold, the cost of doing all the signwriting, painting and gilding would just be
wasted.
A date on the board was 1957 signed ‘EB’ the style of mouldings and the whole feel of
this dial ties in with the date. We think ‘EB’ is a local builder called Eddie Brandon. I
felt nothing was going to be lost, or no architectural feature of any note would be
destroyed by deciding that this boarding had seen its life and if I was going to do
things with integrity, then I needed to make a new one. Thinking about it, this board
had served 60 years, so maybe the one before this, had lasted about the same, if it
was installed the same time as the movement. The copper dial itself certainly ties in
with the movement, as it bears the same maker’s name.

12
I would make a new one from English oak and do it in the same way as the last one two
layers, horizontal boards overlaid with vertical boards, each board
thickness15mm making a total of 30mm. I commission the local joinery shop to
machine up my requirements. In the meantime, I apply another coat of Alkythane to
the copper dial and head back to the workshop to make a start on the window.
Having had a phone call to say my oak was now machined up, I went to collect this and
start with earnest. Laying the boards out, I start to screw them together, using
stainless steel screws of course, as the tanning in oak will corrode steel ones. I first
make a square with the boards, then find the centre by marking diagonal. Using a
compass I mark out 1240mm, being the diameter of the dished copper dial. I can
now determine where to mark out the mouldings and cut the board to the octagonal
shape. Lovely to return back to the technical drawing days and summon the rules of
geometry, It’s been so long, I thought I’d forgotten!!!
13
There is a space between the back of the clock dial bottom and the top front of the
window beneath. This little board, takes up this space and the window splay. The other
one as you can see from the picture, is riddled with woodworm and decay. So….made
a new oak one, but thought I would include a quatrefoil for ventilation, which I later
covered with pierced aluminium mesh.

14a
With all the glass cleaned, I cut some new quarries from old glass, so that it is ready
for assembly with new lead came. Whilst I am at it, I did measure up for some very
small slit windows which are in the access turret. Currently, one has a pane of float
glass in and two more have a wood frame covered in decayed chicken wire, it won’t
take me long, so may as well make these three and I can finish it all off together, as I
loathe making up and using lead light cement, which is worked into the leaded panels in order to weather proof them and stiffen them up.

The slit windows will need a little frame, so I machine some simple frames from oak,
they are only very slim -about 6″ in width, so I just butt join them with glue and
mechanically fix them with brass screws. I added stop chamfers to the inside of the
frames just for a bit of detail. Luckily, they seem to fit in their new home, so just pointed them in lime with mortar of course.

15
When joining the mitres, I decided to use Repair Care, Dry Flex 4 hour, flexible
epoxy resin as my secondary fixing, used in conjunction with Repair Care, Dry Fix
stabiliser which is applied before the resin. I used stainless steel screws as my
primary fixing, which were screwed in from the back, about five screws in each
moulding section. It is my hope that this will stand the test of time, if the mitres do
open up, at least the end grain will be completely sealed with the stabiliser, to thwart
moisture ingress which had claimed the last moulding design.
16
I wanted to do something creative with the mitres, I had in my mind about flattening
off the mitres with an infill piece, possibly protruding into the spandrels to fill that
space. I thought I would cast some lead detail such as small Tudor roses, or just
domed buttons to place on the flat areas. Anyway, another time perhaps, but in the
end, I decided I would terminate the inner bead of the moulding into a protruding
18mm hardwood ball, as this would not be vulnerable as a moisture trap at the lower
part of the dial & when the rest of the frame is blue, I would gild these to accentuate
this tiny detail. After drilling a shallow hole & countersinking the bottom, I stuck
them in with Repair Care Dry Flex SF.

17
I thought I would do something else creative with the centre, rather than just drill a
hole for the shaft for the hands, I decided to do a quatrefoil & routed a V groove for
the vertical and horizontal registration lines. A bit bizarre & over the top for something
that isn’t seen, but I thought it would be fun & appropriately ecclesiastical.,
somebody will see it one day. After abrading everything with 80 grit, I then apply one
coat of low build stain to penetrate the timber and afford some first coat protection.
18
The old dial back boarding, it is completely shot, so am pleased I made the decision
to remove it. The old dial fixings, were through some rusty straps at the back, I do
not intend to re-use these as the primary fixing, although I will at least drill two
more holes and bolt it, to lock all the old and new together, thus leaving them there.
I then coated them up with ‘Owatrol’, to inhibit further corrosion. At the same time,
whilst it is accessible, I coated the back of the motion works board with Sadolin
quick drying preserver.

19
I used four stainless steel 6″ studs which are resin fixed to the stone wall. In
addition, to support the weight, I drove in two stainless steel spikes 300mm x 15mm
x 10mm thick at the lower angles of the octagonal board for extra security in
supporting the weight.
20
Hauling the dial up fourteen meters was no easy task, I rigged up a gantry gallows
bracket on the scaffold and used a block & tackle to half the weight. Luckily, I did not
have to do this on my own, helped by my brother, Richard Agnew and North Crawley
resident and friend of the church, John Plummer.
21
The juncture between the back of the clock dial boarding and the stone wall, was fairly
tight on one side, but on the other there was a gap of around 1″ -enough for small
birds to get in behind. Previously, this was taken up with mortar. When I took down
the old dial, it was very damp behind, so felt it would be better to maintain that air
gap, but stop moisture getting in. I used the existing lead flashing and dressed this
over the top and two angles. Then, I thought I would dress some lead down the
vertical sides, to seal this juncture. I used code 4 flashing and fixed it using copper
nails, after trimming to shape I then applied patination oil to improve its appearance.
The return flash was pointed using lime mortar for elasticity.

22

Bringing back into play the draft tracing taken earlier, now made into a working
drawing, I start to transfer the original layout using chalk. I used 20 hour gold size and
proceeded to gild the next day using extra thick pure 24 carat gold leaf. Conditions
were very windy and fairly cool, I managed to lose a couple of leaves and the size was
gluey to apply. I double gilded the hands and the faults the rest of the gilding, before
applying one last coat of Sadolin Superdec opaque satin finish -six in total and five
coats of Alkythane for the copper dish.
23
The oak infill piece with the quatrefoil vent mentioned earlier, I think this picture
explains its function more clearly. I left this finished in Sadolin Classic low build
‘Catalina grey’

BEFORE AND AFTER

BEFORE AND AFTER

The job is finished now, with the scaffold down, here are the overall pictures.

27

 

 

ST. FIRMIN'S CHURCH COMPLETED CLOCK DIAL RESTORATION

ST. FIRMIN’S CHURCH COMPLETED CLOCK DIAL RESTORATION